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See It's also important to mention the developments and experiences of the pioneers in Switzerland (e.g. Brunner, Ruedi Kriesi and Josef Jenni) and in Austria (Helmut Krapmeier, Richard Caldonazzi, Sture Larsen, Josef Kiraly ).

← Ingolstadt-Halmstadt: Low-energy houses (30 k Wh/(m²a) heating demand) in two countries, by Architekt Hans Eek (1985) Sweden paved the way for the success of the “low-energy house”.

Bo Adamson (1990) was the first to classify these houses as passive houses, and the question whether it was possible to transfer this principle to Europe using technical means gave the idea for a research project concerning “passive houses”. In the Middle Ages, in Iceland people started to build turf houses after wood became scarce. Whether the thermometer stands at 22° above zero or at 22° below it, we have no fire in the stove.

These were Passive Houses, although they didn't have adequate windows or sufficient ventilation. …The skylight which was most exposed to the cold was protected by three panes of glass one within the other, and in various other ways. The ventilation is excellent, especially since we rigged up the air sail, which sends a whole winter‘s cold in through the ventilator; yet in spite of this we sit here warm and comfortable, with only a lamp burning.

See ← The Philips Experimental House (from: Hörster et al)) Parallel to the Scandinavian and American developments, systematic study of energy-efficient buildings was carried out in Germany by Dr. Bernd Steinmüller (building models and simulations), Dr. Experiences from this project were incorporated into Passive House research from the very beginning.

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The solution to this problem was found in the mining of coal. As we know, necessity is the mother of invention: the icelanders quickly found out that well-insulated houses remain warm by themselves. ← The DTH zero-energy house on the campus in Kopenhagen. Vagn Korsgaard (Kopenhagen, 1973) was also a Passive some parts of Iran, on the coast of Portugal, some parts of China…).“Passive Houses” have always been built there, although they weren't known as such.See also ← Example of a “super-insulated home” in the USA A whole series of North American developments (“super-insulated houses”) in the 70s and 80s were very close to the Passive House. Shurcliff (1981) authored many publications on this subject. (Foto: rmi) Amory Lovins, who is well-known for his publications about alternative energy, did not stop at the theory.One of the early examples is the “Sasketchewan Conservation House”, a still occupied building demonstrating the benefitis of superinsulation. He built an extremely well-insulated solar passive house in Old Snowmass in Colorado, at an altitude of 2164 metres.

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